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Ground Ivy - Courtesy of Wikipedia

Glechoma hederacea (syn. Nepeta glechoma Benth., Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevir.) is an aromatic, perennial, evergreen creeper of the mint family Lamiaceae. It is commonly known as Ground-ivy


About The Ground IvyEdit

Glechoma hederacea is native to Europe and southwestern Asia but has been introduced to North America and is now common in most regions other than the Rocky Mountains. Its common names include Alehoof, Creeping Charlie (or Charley), Catsfoot (from the size and shape of the leaf), Field Balm, Run-away-robin Ground Ivy, Gill-over-the-ground, and Tunhoof. It is also sometimes known as Creeping Jenny, but that more commonly refers to Lysimachia nummularia. It can be identified by its round to reniform (kidney or fan shaped), crenate (with round toothed edges) opposed leaves 2–3 cm diameter, on 3–6 cm long petioles attached to square stems which root at the nodes. It is a variable species, its size being influenced by environmental conditions, from 5 cm up to 50 cm tall

Glechoma is sometimes confused with common mallow or Malva neglecta, which also has round, lobed leaves; but mallow leaves are attached to the stem at the back of a rounded leaf, where ground ivy has square stems and leaves which are attached in the center of the leaf, more prominent rounded lobes on their edges, attach to the stems in an opposite arrangement, and have a hairy upper surface. In addition, mallow and other creeping plants sometimes confused with ground ivy do not spread from nodes on stems. In addition, ground ivy emits a distinctive odor when damaged, being a member of the mint family.

The flowers of Glechoma are bilaterally symmetrical, funnel shaped, blue or bluish-violet to lavender, and grow in opposed clusters of 2 or 3 flowers in the leaf axils on the upper part of the stem or near the tip. It usually flowers in the spring.

Glechoma thrives in moist shaded areas, but also tolerates sun very well. It is a common plant in grasslands and wooded areas or wasteland. It also thrives in lawns and around buildings, since it survives mowing. It spreads by stolons or by seed. Part of the reason for its wide spread is this rhizomatous method of reproduction. It will form dense mats which can take over areas of lawn, and thus can be considered potentially invasive or aggressive weed.

Ecological aspectsEdit

A number of wild bees fly upon this plant, including Anthophora furcata, Anthidum manicatum, Anthophora plumipes, Anthophora quadrimaculata, Osmia aurulenta, Osmia caerulentes, and Osmia uncinata.

It is one of the foodplants of the case-bearing larvae of the moth Coleophora albitarsella.

Cultivation and usesEdit

Glechoma is sometimes grown as a potted plant, and occasionally as a ground cover. A variegated variety is sometimes commercially available.

While often thought of as a weed because of its propensity for spreading, Glechoma has culinary and medicinal uses which were the cause of its being imported to America by early European settlers. The fresh herb can be rinsed and steeped in hot water to create an herbal tea which is rich in vitamin C. The essential oil of the plant has many potent medicinal properties; the plant has been used for centuries as a general tonic for colds and coughs and to relieve congestion of the mucous membranes. The plant has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. It has also been claimed to increase excretion of lead in the urine.

Its medicinal properties have been described for millennia, Galen recommending the plant to treat inflammation of the eyes, for instance. John Gerard, an English herbalist, recommended the plant to treat tinnitus, as well as a "diuretic, astringent, tonic and gentle stimulant. Useful in kidney diseases and for indigestion." It is also useful as a "lung herb" Glechoma was also widely used by the Saxons in brewing beer as flavoring, clarification, and preservative, before the introduction of hops for these purposes; thus the brewing-related names, Alehoof, Tunhoof, and Gill-over-the-ground.

Glechoma has been used in the cheese making process as a substitute for animal rennet

ControlEdit

As is often the case when a plant has this many familiar names, Glechoma is familiar to a large number of people as a weed, a property it shares with many others of the mint family. It can be a problem in heavy, rich soils with good fertility, high moisture, and low boron content. It thrives particularly well in shady areas where grass does not grow well, although it can also be a problem in full sun.

Small infestations can be controlled through hand weeding; repeated weeding is required because the plant is stoloniferous and will continue to spread from its roots or bits of stem which reroot.

Glechoma is unusually sensitive to boron, and can be killed by applying borax (sodium tetraborate) in solution. The ratio is eight to ten ounces of borax dissolved in four ounces of warm water, diluted to 2.5 U.S. gallons of final solution, to be sprayed evenly over precisely 1,000 square feet (100 m2) of lawn "no more, no less". Note that despite being a "natural" treatment, boron is toxic to other plants and to animals at only slightly higher concentrations and, being an element, does not break down; therefore the long term effects of this technique on soil or groundwater, although not well documented, can be assumed to be unfavorable. More recent research discounts the efficacy of borax, primarily because finding the correct concentration for a given area is difficult and the potential for damaging desired plants.

Aside from mechanical removal or borax treatment, the other alternative for Glechoma infestation is use of commercial herbicides. There is some disagreement over the effectiveness of various herbicides, with dicamba (Trimec and Weed-B-Gon) and 2,4-D being described variously as both effective and ineffective by different sources. Some or all of the disagreement may be due to the existence of subpopulations which have differing susceptibilities to different compounds, as well as to differing rates of application. To avoid generating herbicide resistance, the same product should not be used several years in succession; rather, various products should be used in rotation. Triclopyr has also been described as effective, and Clopyralid, MCPP, and quinclorac as ineffective. Fluroxypyr and Confront have also been described as effective, but sales of both are restricted to professionals. Two applications ten to fourteen days apart are necessary; also, the ability of the surviving plants to regenerate after 24 days can require a second treatment four or five weeks later, and even more followups.

In addition, the timing of application may play a role in the effectiveness of the herbicide, as well as the perception of effectiveness. For instance, fall is usually the best time for use of broadleaf herbicides; however a slow acting herbicide like triclopyr applied in the fall may not appear to have been effective until the next growing season.

Other techniques reported effective are to fertilize with greater than two pounds of nitrogen per thousand square feet annually, and use of the preemergence herbicide, isoxaben. In extremely difficult cases, a short-lived full-spectrum herbicide such as Roundup is used to kill the entire lawn, and it is reseeded from start.


ManagementEdit

Ground-ivy is not usually a problem on arable land but in the past it has been found in quantity in lucerne. Thorough cultivation should eradicate it. In grassland, ground-ivy is found in disturbed areas around rabbit warrens. The plant is generally avoided by rabbits. In roadside verges, increased cutting frequency reduced the occurrence of ground-ivy.


==Persistence And Spread == Most seeds remain viable in soil for only a short period but a small number may persist for long periods.

The seeds are passively dispersed. On contact with water the seed coat becomes mucilaginous and seeds will stick to most surfaces.

Vegetative spread is rapid. Ground-ivy forms patches by rapid stolon extension and in this way is able to infiltrate other vegetation. Runners can be over 70 cm long. The creeping stems root at every node. Detached shoot fragments may be important for long distance dispersal.

BiologyEdit

The flowers appear in the leaf axils between March and July. The flowers are insect pollinated. The main period for seed set is June. An average plant may have 100 seeds. Seed production is often poor and establishment from seed is rare in most habitats. Seed germination is increased by a period of dry storage.

Regeneration is primarily vegetative. Ground-ivy has creeping stems or stolons. New shoots and roots form at each node along the stolons. The shoots persist for one season. Ground-ivy overwinters as 2-leaved shoots or as 8 to 10-leaved rosettes. The foliage is generally frost hardy but dry conditions can cause wilting and some plant losses. Growth restarts from April onwards


OccurenceEdit

Ground-ivy is a perennial common in hedge banks and found at times as a weed in arable crops and on the margins of arable fields. Ground-ivy is typically a plant of shaded areas and is native in woods, grassland and waste places usually in damper, heavier soils. It is found throughout the UK and is most abundant on sites with bare ground particularly on heavy and calcareous soils. Ground-ivy thrives on soils rich in phosphate and nitrogen.

There is some evidence that ground-ivy can have an allelopathic effect on the plants around it. Before the introduction of hops the plant was used extensively in brewing. It also has medicinal and therapeutic uses. There is a report that it has caused poisoning in horses in England. The plant is toxic if ingested in large amounts either fresh or in hay but only horses are affected. Grazing animals generally avoid it because of the bitter taste

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