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This butterfly comes a family called Nymphalide

Introduction About The ButterflyEdit

This woodland butterfly gets its name from the series of "pearls" that run along the outside edge of the underside of the hindwing. Males are often seen flying swiftly, low across the breeding site in search of a mate and are extremely difficult to follow, the colouring of the wings providing excellent camouflage against the dead bracken that is often found at these sites. The Pearl-bordered Fritillary may fly with the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary at certain sites, although the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, which emerges a couple of weeks before the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, generally appears much paler in colour as a result.This woodland butterfly gets its name from the series of "pearls" that run along the outside edge of the underside of the hindwing. Males are often seen flying swiftly, low across the breeding site in search of a mate and are extremely difficult to follow, the colouring of the wings providing excellent camouflage against the dead bracken that is often found at these sites. The Pearl-bordered Fritillary may fly with the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary at certain sites, although the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, which emerges a couple of weeks before the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, generally appears much paler in colour as a result.

The Distribution Of The ButterflyEdit

This butterfly forms discrete colonies which can be found in isolated pockets in southern and western England, Wales, Scotland and the Burren in western Ireland. Colonies can fluctuate wildly in numbers, from a couple of dozen to over a thousand, this being largely-determined by the availability of suitable habitat. Most colonies contain a few dozen adults.

The Annual CycleEdit

This butterfly forms discrete colonies which can be found in isolated pockets in southern and western England, Wales, Scotland and the Burren in western Ireland. Colonies can fluctuate wildly in numbers, from a couple of dozen to over a thousand, this being largely-determined by the availability of suitable habitat. Most colonies contain a few dozen adults.

Habitat Of The ButterflyEdit

This butterfly is typically found in deciduous woodland containing open areas, such as woodland clearings, that provide the right conditions, foodplants and nectar sources for this species to thrive. This butterfly can also be found in conifer plantations and limestone pavements in some areas. Sites are generally suitable 2 to 4 years after a woodland clearing has been formed, when the foodplants and nectar sources are optimal for this species. However, these sites can quickly become overgrown and, unless there is suitable habitat nearby, colonies will tend to die out.

Food PlantsEdit

The primary larval foodplant is Common Dog-Violet (Viola Riviniana) Heath Dog-Violet (Viola Canina) and Marsh Violet (Viola Palustris) are also used

Conservation Status Of The ButterflyEdit

Once considered common and widespread, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is now one of our most-threatened species. The cessation of coppicing which resulted in the loss of suitable habitat is believed to be one of the major causes of this drastic decline. Conservation efforts have therefore focused on habitat management and there have been a number of success stories. However, this butterfly is still declining and, as such, continues to be a priority species for conservation efforts.

Similar SpeciesEdit

The Pearl-bordered Fritillary and Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary are most easily distinguished by their undersides. Both species have a row of 7 white "pearls" running along the edge of the hindwing (hence their vernacular names). However, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary has only 2 additional "pearls" on the underside hindwing, whereas the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary has many more. The Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary also has a greater variety of brown colouration making it, in general, the more colourful underside. It is much more difficult to distinguish the Pearl-bordered Fritillary from the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary based on their uppersides. However, as can be seen in the figures below, there are two general differences. The first is that, in the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, the triangles next to the wing edge are often "floating" and not attached to the outer margin. The second is that, in the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, the second row of dots from the edge are midway between the outer row of dots, and the inner row of dots. Whereas in the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, the dots are not midway, but distinctly closer to the outer row of dots.

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