The Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), is a medium-small wading bird found in temperate and subarctic Eurasia. It has cryptic camouflage to suit its woodland habitat, with reddish-brown upperparts and buff-coloured underparts. Its eyes are set far back on its head to give it 360-degree vision and it probes in the ground for food with its long, sensitive bill, making it vulnerable to cold weather when the ground remains frozen.
The male performs a courtship flight known as 'roding' at dusk in spring. When threatened, the female can carry chicks between her legs, in her claws or on her back while flying, though this is rarely witnessed. The world population is estimated to be 15 million to 16 million birds.
Adults are 33–38 centimetres (13–15 in) in length, including the 6–8 centimetres (2.4–3.1 in) long straight bill, and have a 55–65 centimetres (22–26 in) wingspan. The Eurasian Woodcock has cryptic camouflage to suit its woodland habitat, with intricately patterned reddish-brown upperparts and buff underparts. The head is barred with black, not striped like that of its close relatives, the snipe. It has large eyes located high on the sides of its head, giving it 360-degree monocular vision.
The wings are rounded and the base of the bill is flesh-coloured with a dark tip. The legs vary from grey to pinkish. The species is sexually dimorphic, with the male much larger than the female, although the sexes cannot be separated in the field.
Distribution and habitatEdit
About one third of the world's Eurasian Woodcock breed in Europe, with more than 90% of the continent's population breeding in Russia and Fennoscandia. Their breeding range stretches from Fennoscandia to the Mediterranean Sea and Canary Islands and from western Europe to Russia.
This species is the woodcock found through most of temperate and subarctic Eurasia. Northern and Asian populations migrate to southern Europe or south Asia respectively. Birds in milder western European countries and on Atlantic islands are resident. The populations breeding in north-west and southern Europe are mostly sedentary. The birds' spring migration commences in February; breeding territories are reached between March and May.Narodowy, Poland
The Eurasian Woodcock has a large range, with an estimated Global Extent of Occurrence of 10 million square kilometres and a population of an estimated 15 million to 16 million birds. Because of its large range, stable population trend and large population size, the species has been evaluated as Least Concern. The most important threat to the population of the Eurasian Woodcock in the breeding range is the increased fragmentation of its woodland habitat. At other times of year, a reduction in the amount of permanent grassland and an increase in the intensification of farming are also threats,
and the species' susceptibility to avian influenza may have an impact in future.
The Eurasian Woodcock's required breeding habitat is large, unfragmented areas of broadleaved deciduous or mixed broadleaved and coniferous forest, with dense undergrowth of plants such as Brambles, Holly, Hazel, Gorse, Bracken or Bilberry. Breeding territories must include a mix of dry, warm resting places, damp areas for feeding, and clearings for flight. In larger woods, wide 'rides' (open tracks through the wood) and small clearings are important. In winter, Eurasian Woodcock also use scrubland during the day but in freezing weather they may use intertidal mud.
Eurasian Woodcock are crepuscular (most active at dawn and dusk) and rarely active during the day unless flushed, when they fly off with a whirring wing noise. The flight is somewhat owl- or bat-like; Woodcock fly fast and direct while migrating or crossing open country, but fly erratically with twisting and fluttering once in woodland. They are usually solitary and migrate singly, but may congregate when weather or geographical conditions force them to do so. This species is parasitised by the moorhen flea, Dasypsyllus gallinulae.
The male performs a courtship display flight called 'roding' at dusk between April and June. Flying over the treetops with flickering wings and downward-pointing bill, it utters several deep croaks followed by a sharp squeak; the grunts are at a frequency of between 0.6 to 1.5 kHz and the squeaks range from 3 to 14 kHz. A study of spectrograms of the vocalisations of male Eurasian Woodcock showed that 95% of calls could be attributed correctly to individual birds, and concluded that counting roding males was a suitable method of monitoring the population.
Eurasian Woodcock nest on the ground in low cover in woodland or tall heather. The nest is a lined cup or a slight hollow lined with dead leaves and other plant material. A single brood of four white or creamy eggs with light brown and grey blotches is laid; once the clutch is complete, incubation is performed by the female for between 21–24 days. The eggs measure 44 x 34 mm and weigh 26.5 g, of which 5% is shell. The downy, precocial young leave the nest immediately and fledge after 15–20 days, although they can fly short distances after 10 days. When threatened, the mother bird can fly whilst carrying small chicks between her legs, body and tail, in her claws or on her back. This behaviour is rarely witnessed.
Food and feedingEdit
Eurasian Woodcock forage in soft soil in thickets, usually well hidden from sight. They mainly eat earthworms, but also insects and their larvae, freshwater molluscs and some plant seeds. Because they rely on probing into the ground to find food, they are vulnerable to cold winter weather when the ground remains frozen. During the cold British winter of 1962-3, starving Woodcock were found feeding in urban areas and some were even forced to eat bird seed.
Nocturnal feeding occurs in frost-free pasture or long-rotation grass meadows; fields with woodland within 1 kilometre are preferred to allow roosting during the day. There are only low densities of Eurasian Woodcock in predominantly arable areas. In a three-year scientific study based in Brittany, France, 65 radio-tagged Woodcock and their habitat preferences were monitored. During the day, the birds chose areas of forest with humus which held large numbers of earthworms and with a dense scrub layer to provide protection, and hedges with scrub and trees were also found to be important. At night, the Woodcock selected grazed pastures which had five times the biomass of earthworms compared to tilled land.